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What is translation? Describe brief history of translation.

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Translation is the transmittal of written text from one language into another. Although the terms translation and interpretation are often used interchangeably, by strict definition, translation Refers to the written language, and interpretation to the spoken word.

Translation is the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text, also called a translation, that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the source text, and the language it is to be translated into is called the target language.

Essay Questions Cardiff School of European Studies Ma Translation Studies

Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. A common misconception is that there exists a simple word-for-word correspondence between any two languages, and that translation is a straightforward mechanical process. A word-for-word translation does not take into account context, grammar, conventions, and idioms. History of translation The practice of translating is long established, the study of the field developed into an academic discipline only in the second half of the twentieth century.

Before that, translation had normally been merely an element of language learning in modern language courses. In fact, from the late eighteenth century to the s, language learning in secondary schools in many countries had come to be dominated by what was known as the grammar-translation method.

MSc Translation Studies - The University of Aberdeen

This method, which was applied to classical Latin and Greek and then to modern foreign languages, centered On the rote study of the grammatical rules and structures of the foreign Language. In the USA, translation — specifically literary translation — was promoted in universities in the s by the translation workshop concept. Based on I. They were intended as a platform for the introduction of new translations into the target culture and for the discussion of the finer principles of the translation process and of understanding a text.

Comparative literature:. Where literature is studied and compared transnationally and transculturally, necessitating the reading of some literature in translation. Contrastive analysis: Another area in which translation became the subject of research was contrastive analysis. This is the study of two languages in contrast in an attempt to identify general and specific differences between them.

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Conclusion: The practice of translating is long established but translating studies is a new academic discipline related to the study of the theory and phenomena of translation. This new discipline was established almost 50 years ago. Translation Studies. For example, translation for publishers and essay translation have a vast shared set. Essay translation concerns texts that are neither fiction nor poetry, hence is comprised within the limits of non fiction. Differently from a scientific or field-specific text, however, in an essay text sometimes the aesthetic component is very important.

The subject can be philosophical, political, literary, scientific or contemporary society differing from fiction, therefore, in that the subject is always connected to an organized field of knowledge.

Translation Studies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - words

But the argument, unlike that of the scientific article, is sometimes made without punctual and forced references to the relative bibliography. While in a scientific article all statements must result from other quoted scientific articles or empirical experiments made by the writing researcher, the elegance of treatment allows to fly higher, to take the references that are considered well-known for granted. The intertextual reference in an essay can therefore be implicit, and the essay is less fixed on updating the international scientific community on the latest research developments in a given field than on making reflections of more general character more for orienting the background methodology than detailing the single experiment.

Thanks to this general meditative character, typical of a philosophical essay one could say that the essay is an extension of the "philosophical essay" genre to other fields of knowledge: philosophy of science, philosophy of language, philosophy of politics, philosophy of literature , the essay is usually more elegant and literarily more eloquent than a scientific article.


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Moreover, unlike a scientific article, characterized by strong denotativity, or referentiality, an essay contains many connotative and intertextual references. And all that also has very important consequences on the plane of its translation.

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Let's take the example of an essay from the field of translation studies, maybe the most prestigious essay in this field, the classic After Babel by George Steiner. Here is a sentence almost randomly chosen in the book:. Wittgenstein asked where, when, and by what rationally established criterion the process of free yet potentially linked and significant association in psychoanalysis could be said to have a stop.

An exercise in 'total' reading is also potentially unending.

Steiner 8. In 38 words Steiner involves many disciplines and many authors and much knowledge indispensable to the translator in managing the interlingual rendition.