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Extracts from this document Introduction. February LLB (hons) Full time; Year One. (See separate sheet for full page of references) Tort Coursework;.

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  5. An Analysis of the Financial Performance of National Bank Limited Using Financial Ratio!

Academy Management Review, 20 1 , Eicker, F. Asymptotic normality and consistency of the least squares estimator for families of linear regression. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 34, Esperance, Evans D. Tests of alternative theories of firm growth. The Journal of Political Economy, Foss, N. Theories of the Firm: and Competence Perspectives. Journal of Evolutionary Economics 22, FSD Freeman, Edward R..

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Journal of property investment and finance, 17 5 : Kaguri, A University of Nairobi. The higher the ratio, the less liquid the bank is. Loan to deposit is the most important ratio to measure the liquidity condition of the bank. Here, loan means the ad v an c e s for the conventional banks.

Bank with Low LDR is considered to have excessive liquidity, potentially lower profits, and hence less risk as compared to the bank with high LDR. A high figure denotes lower liquidity. Credit risk is one of the major risks faced by bank. This can be described as potential loss arising from the failure of counter party to perform according to contractual arrangement with the bank.

The failure may arise due to unwillingness of the counter party or decline in economic condition etc.

The impact of ERP implementation on the financial performance of the firm : An empirical study

While it is expected that banks would bear some bad loans and losses in their lending activities, one of the key objectives of the bank is to minimize such losses Casu e t a l , Several ratios can be used for measuring credit quality however, not all information on the loans is always available. Non-performing loans is available for National banks Limited therefore this paper use the following ratio:.

This ratio indicates the proportion of the total loans that has been set aside but not charged off. It is percentage of total loan that has been either in default or close to being in default. Once a loan is nonperforming, the odds that it will be repaid in full are considered to be substantially lower. If the debtor starts making payments again on a nonperforming loan, it becomes a reperforming loan, even if the debtor has not caught up on all the missed payments Investopedia. Institutions holding nonperforming loans in their portfolios may choose to sell them to other investors in order to get rid of risky assets and clean up their balance sheets.

Sales of nonperforming loans must be carefully considered since they can have numerous financial implications, including affecting the company's profit and loss, and tax situations. PowerPoint Slide. Larger image png format. View current figure in a new window. The main objective of this research can be gained answer through tested these research questions:. Is there any significant difference between and Return on Asset and Financial performance?

How to Write a Financial Analysis Paper

Is there any significant difference between and Return on Equity and Financial performance? Is there any significant difference between and Cost to income and financial performance? Is there any significant difference between and Net Loans to total asset and financial performance? Is there any significant relationship between Nonperforming Loans to Total Loan and financial performance? During this research below mentioning Null hypothesis has been generated and ready test from research question which mentioned earlier in above.

There is no significant difference between and Return on Asset and Financial performance. There is no significant difference between and Return on Equity and Financial performance. There is no significant difference between and Cost to income and financial performance. There is no significant difference between and Net Loans to total asset and financial performance.

There is no significant difference between Loans to deposit and financial performance. There is no significant relationship between Nonperforming Loans to Total Loan and financial performance. The degrees to which the methodology of this research can be structured two categories are Qualitative and quantitative method. Quantitative methods emphasis on objective measurement and numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires or surveys.

Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people. I use quantitative method for my research project. The research has been carried out once and it represents a snapshot of one point in time. So it is a Descriptive study under the category of time dimension. The research was designed for breadth rather than depth. Null Hypotheses were tested quantitatively and the generalization of our findings was presented based on the representativeness of the sample.

So it can be inferred that it is a statistical study. For achieving the specific objective of the study, data will be gathered entirely from secondary sources. Using collected data as raw sample to make of this research project. National bank Ltd last six years financial history are used as per require of this study. Most of this data are used in financial ratio analysis of this bank. This research paper uses a descriptive financial ratio analysis to measure, describe and analyse the performance of National bank limited in Bangladesh during the period In this case, we want to determine whether there is evidence that the Ratio effective difference.

Inferences about the hypothesis are made by looking at test statistics and critical values associated with the mean. The results of the test are to be handled with caution as there are very few observations and the statistical tool might not be very effective when the sample is small. Authors Oberholzer and Van der Westhuizen used the method in measuring branch performance however, the authors concentrated on branches of a single large bank.

The main advantage of FRA is its ability and effectiveness in distinguishing high performance banks from others and the fact that FRA compensates for disparities and controls for any size effect on the financial variables being studied Samad, FRA permits a historical sketch of bank returns and risks which Hempel et al, suggests presents an opportunity to evaluate the past performance of the bank which is an important step for planning for future performance.

In banking the risk-reward trade off is constantly present. Risk taking generates higher expected earnings through various mechanisms. For example granting high margin loans to risky customers may increase earnings in the short term but it also increases the credit risk profile and the probability of future losses KPMG, NBL is giving continued emphasis on quality assets, which resulted in providing a sound asset base for the bank. So now we are show NBL Return on asset ratio with a descriptive analysis last six financial years from their balance sheet result. Larger image png format Tables index Veiw figure View current table in a new window.

Last year was another challenging year for the banking sector if we are compare to During the year average interest margin has decreased due to bank investment of fund to the low yield and government securities. With expansion of business, asset profile of the bank also increased gradually. Total asset of bank grew up The significant increase in asset was mainly achieved due to rise in loan and advance, investment, cash and balance with other bank and institutions. This factor is effecting the calculation of ROA. Table 1 shows in period banks ROA gradually increased.

In financial year bank earn ROA 4. Bank performs most effectively in as I can mention from graph. But in last year there some hope that it will try to reach previous position. If we focus on Table 2 here two period means respectively 3. Maximum 6. This trend we can easily identify by below ROA graph of View previous figure.

Moreover the return on equity ROE was average Lower ROE in was 6. If we compare to last year ROE to previous year 2. The earnings per share was Tk. The net asset value per share stood at Tk. In Table 3 ROE reached highest point In accordance with prudent capital structure plan, the bank has a consistent dividend policy. In addition NBL declared high stock dividend as and when possible to strengthen the capital base. So bank current ROE position need to change if we compare to last 4 years except of It also increased to For Cost to income ratio maximum was In bank performing good because at that time they hold cost Overall al cost to income ratio significantly changed from which boost profitability.

In term of bank profitability ROA and ROE was increased till then it goes downward bit mixed trend and Cost to income ratio most effective at then it goes slightly upward but not more than So bank should focus on improve the return on assets and equity. Liquidity performance measures the ability to meet financial obligations as they become due and is crucial to the sustained viability of banking institutions. What began as credit concerns for the US sub-prime market developed into concerns in global credit markets with unknown financial exposures and potential losses ABSA, This severely reduced the levels of liquidity in the global financial markets SARB, NBL was not immune to such developments and this is reflected in the liquidity ratios.

Bank used their deposits in investment activity increased consistently.


Because investment in stock more closely related to liquid things will make bank more liquid that build good relation to bank customer Bank use their deposits in investment highest in and lowest Other year respectively performed is good. Net loan to total asset ratio has consistency between two periods. The mean of this period 0. Bigger the ratio less liquid is bank. Cho, S. Need Help? Support Find support for a specific problem on the support section of our website.

Get Support. Feedback Please let us know what you think of our products and services. Give Feedback. Get Information. This study analyzed whether a systematic relationship exists between corporate social responsibility CSR performance and corporate financial performance using sample firms listed on the Korea Exchange. The correlation between these variables and CSR performance was examined through correlation and regression analysis.

The results confirm that CSR performance has a partial positive correlation with profitability and firm value. In the relationship between CSR performance and profitability, only social contribution yields a statistically positive correlation. Analysis of the correlation between CSR performance and financial performance indicators revealed a positive relationship between the growth rate of total assets and corporate soundness and social contribution.

Introduction 1. Background and Purpose of the Study Along with the advent and rapid spread of environmental management, the importance of corporate social responsibility CSR is gradually increasing. Furthermore, the influence of the social corporate has increased, becoming ever more significant. Society now expects firms to not only produce goods and services but also play a more desirable role in society, rather than being limited to their traditional role. However, companies are not actively coping with this and are being criticized by society [ 1 ], indicating that they are not sufficiently trusted by society.

A firm can expect to experience sustainable growth through the trust placed in it by society. Accordingly, if a firm performs trust-based entrepreneurial activities, it can maintain good relationships with various stakeholders, and ultimately expect improvement in economic performance [ 2 ].

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Accordingly, in recent years, CSR activities have been recognized as a natural obligation of firms. As sustainable management has become much more important, firms have begun to recognize CSR internally as an important business strategy. Investors are also recognizing the importance of socially responsible investment SRI , which involves investing in companies with outstanding CSR performance [ 4 ]. In the s, CSR is characterized by its implementation at company-wide and strategic levels; namely, at the global level, there have been active efforts and discussions for international standardization of CSR, such as the UN Global Compact.

This compact established ten principles in four large areas: human rights, labor, environment, and anti-corruption. It classified CSR as an international norm. This work toward international standardization suggests that CSR may become the new trade barrier in the near future, requiring more active and strategic responses from firms [ 5 ]. As efforts toward international standardization are increasing and as the environment and ethics of firms are becoming main issues domestically, a new perspective on CSR has become more prominent [ 6 ].

The purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a systematic relationship between CSR performance and the corporate financial performance of firms listed on the Korean Exchange. In particular, this study analyzes the relationship using the KEJI index. To conduct the empirical analysis, this study uses the financial data of the top companies selected as good companies by the KEJI at the end of The financial data for control variables size of the firm, debt ratio are extracted from the TS reported by Korea Companies Information.

The collected data are briefly examined using descriptive statistics, and the relationships between the variables are analyzed using correlation analysis. Multiple regression models are used to examine the hypotheses, with the empirical analysis conducted via SPSS This study analyzes whether there is a systematic relationship between CSR performance and the financial performance of Korean stock market listed firms studied in the KEJI survey.

(DOC) Thesis Paper on comarative financial performance | Arafat Munna -

The financial performance of the companies is evaluated using profitability and corporate value. Additionally, the relationship between CSR performance and financial performance is analyzed using the sales revenue growth rate as a measure of corporate financial performance.

Therefore, the studies using this prior KEJI index risk overestimating the relationship. Accordingly, it is necessary to reevaluate this relationship using the post KEJI index. This study uses the KEJI index released at the end of as a proxy for CSR performance, empirically analyzes the relationship between CSR performance and financial performance, and verifies the results by comparison with previous studies that employed the KEJI index prior to Thus, there has been insufficient research on the relationship between CSR performance and growth rates, an aspect other than profitability that measures financial performance.

This study uses not only single indicators, but also the growth rate of sales revenue to examine the relationship with CSR performance. Through this, the relationship between profitability, corporate value, and growth performance is analyzed to examine CSR and corporate financial performance, with the goal of understanding how CSR outcomes increase or decrease ROA, a measure of the overall profitability of the firm. As most CSR literature are established upon the examination of developed markets, especially on the U.

Firms in the emerging economies are most easily discerned by their weak firm-level governance. Specifically, firms with better CSR practices are often rewarded with higher firm valuations in Hong Kong and in China [ 11 ], and in Romania [ 12 ]. In addition, companies with a better sustainability which can be understood as a broader concept of CSR reporting score enjoy steeper appreciation of their market values in Singapore [ 13 ].

More recently, a study on the Korean market highlights the moderating effect of firm ownership structure on the relationship between CSR and firm value [ 14 ]. However, the existing literature on CSR in the Korean market remains relatively elusive due to the distinctive market conditions.

Compared with other emerging economies described thus far, the weak corporate governance issue is especially problematic in the Korean market due to the presence of chaebols , which are large family-oriented conglomerates whose sectors of business operation span across numerous different industries. Given the vast number of groups involved in these chaebol firms, the relevant stakeholders, both internal and external, find it difficult to reach a mutual agreement not only among themselves but also with the management on corporate decisions including engagement in CSR activities.

Therefore, examining the firms in the Korean market enables us to complement the literature on how CSR practices affect firm value and performance under such weak firm-level governance. While numerous attempts have been made in understanding the effect of CSR on corporate performance and on firm value in Korea, the available empirical evidence remains equivocal. Furthermore, many fail to note how the corporate trend in terms of CSR has undergone significant changes since the Asian financial crisis.

The market failure in , which was primarily prompted by less-restrained corporate borrowing, led the Korean government to initiate a series of stringent financial regulations that pressurized Korean firms to adopt more responsible business practices including investment in CSR-related projects [ 15 ]. Ever since, stakeholders whose values were utterly destroyed by the crisis have been progressively demanding that the firms protect their rights and meet social obligations [ 16 , 17 , 18 ]. In response to these growing demands, Korean firms have been increasing their investment in CSR to restore their damaged reputation [ 19 , 20 , 21 ].

This corporate trend towards CSR-adoption continues to exist and many large profitable firms in the Korean market plan to increase their investment in CSR activities on a yearly basis, with some even declaring that they will spend a proportion of their net profit margin in financing CSR-related projects such as social contribution, charity, and CEO donation programs.

This study contributes to the literature in the following ways. First, we provide additional empirical evidence of the positive association between corporate social responsibility CSR and firm performance by utilizing accounting- and market-based measures. Second, we perform an exhaustive investigation of more recent data, not yet extensively covered by prior researches, and observe CSR from various perspectives.

Lastly, our study is among the few that examine whether corporate investment in CSR activities uniformly improves corporate performance and market valuations. Thus, our in-depth analysis of the Korean firms provides practical implications to policy makers, market participants, and academic researchers in the emerging market.

CSR refers to a firm fulfilling its legal, economic, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities to society [ 22 ]. Bowen [ 24 ] first developed an academic definition of social responsibility as a concept of CSR; in his book Social Responsibility of Businessmen , he defines social responsibility as the pursuit of the right policy in terms of social goals or values, describing it as the duty of businesspeople to follow such decisions and actions [ 25 ].

Since then, many definitions have been suggested, with no single unique definition of CSR. Because discussions about CSR are broad and comprehensive, it can be defined from many different approaches and perspectives [ 26 ]. Furthermore, examining the definition of CSR by major global institutions, the OECD defines CSR as the social responsibility of a firm to continuously develop the mutual growth relationship between itself and society.

ISO is the first international standard concerning CSR, and applies to all organizations, including corporations [ 29 ]. The issue of the social responsibility of Korean companies has been actively discussed since the beginning of the 21st century. While firms have been skeptical in the past, CSR has become a firm behavior that addresses ethical and other problems, and should be considered as a part of business activities. Furthermore, because CSR activities can eventually result in the financial success of the firm, more and more firms are strategically using CSR as a means of marketing [ 30 ].

So far, CSR activities have been conducted either benevolently or mandatorily as the social return of wealth accumulated by entrepreneurs and firms, but now, the focus on CSR should shift toward a strategic dimension. By contrast, in the past, firms have taken rather defensive or passive positions, and CSR was more concerned with the personal preferences of the CEO. It was regarded as a secondary activity centered on related personnel.

Social contributions had been limited to physical support, and direct interaction with the recipient was also limited [ 31 ]. Examining the global trend, the Washington Post reports nearly , pages of firm websites related to CSR. Indeed, the United Nations is the best sponsor in this area. Business schools have also developed courses concerning CSR, with contributions from many newsletters and consultants [ 32 ].

Recently, studies such as the one by Lee [ 35 ] suggest that as CSR becomes widespread, social responsibility is important for firms for several reasons. First, based on the win-win idea that both economic values and social values are important, strategic corporate social activities eventually benefit firms. Striving to ensure the health and safety of citizens and developing corporate activities that meet the needs of each stakeholder, like caring for social and environmental issues, human rights, and information disclosure, are ultimately the pursuit of the common interests of the firm and its stakeholders.

Second, when a firm fulfills its social responsibilities, it can build closer relationships with each of its stakeholders.


Third, to gain the satisfaction of each stakeholder, it is necessary to have a long-term perspective rather than a short-term perspective. Firms that value social responsibility can seek long-term profits even if they have to sacrifice short-term profits. Fourth, when evaluating a firm from a wide perspective, if it fulfills its social responsibilities, it receives good evaluations and a good reputation from society and consumers.

Consumers want to buy goods and services from reputable companies, and outstanding talent is attracted to principled firms. Furthermore, many firms have strong tendencies to do business with other firms that share values similar to theirs. Fifth, as a firm fulfills its social responsibility, it can be recognized as a firm with outstanding corporate management capabilities especially by investors and with sufficient financial capacity.

As firms operate within the social boundaries, they have multiple obligations to fulfill, not only limited to those outlined by shareholders, but also to those necessitated by stakeholders. The roots of corporate social responsibility CSR can be traced back to the idea of corporate volunteering and the emergence of the social welfare concept in the late nineteenth century [ 36 , 37 ]. However, ever since its first inception, the meaning of CSR has undergone substantial developments and become increasingly sophisticated.

Given this context, corporate responsibility can be classified into four distinct categories in order of decreasing importance: economic, legal, ethical, and voluntary duties [ 38 , 39 ]. First, a firm is expected to meet its economic responsibility. Indeed, the primary purpose of an enterprise is to generate and maintain sustainable corporate profits by the means of creating and providing the necessary products and services to society.

The second most essential duty required of a firm is legal responsibility. As businesses operate within legal boundaries and are protected by national borders, they must strictly adhere to regulations set forth by their respective governments and be transparent to the public and to the relevant stakeholders. Lastly, a firm is expected to carry out its voluntary responsibility which entails participating in philanthropic activities such as giving monetary aids to the socially disadvantaged.

Related to this classification of corporate responsibility, Carroll [ 8 ] addresses that these four main categories of corporate responsibility are not equally important and advises that they should be performed stepwise in the order of importance.

For example, firms should consider meeting economic responsibility first and foremost and subsequently, plan fulfilling legal responsibility. Naturally, it is hard to contain such a broad concept as corporate social responsibility into single terminology. Indeed, CSR can be defined in several different ways, with even large organizations failing to reach an agreement on its concept and precise meaning. For example, the Commission of the European Communities and the International Organization of Employers approach CSR from a macroscopic perspective, defining it as a voluntary concept whereby firms implement various socio-economic and environmental concerns in their corporate activities and in their interaction with stakeholders.

Similarly, the existing literature offers many different definitions for CSR and thus, the concept of CSR cannot be defined by single terminology [ 40 , 41 ]. Due to the lack of precise definition, the concept of CSR is often used interchangeably with that of social contribution, sometimes yielding erroneous interpretations. Hence, it is indispensable to provide an unambiguous definition of CSR, however narrow or broad, before conducting research. For instance, a large body of literature defines the concept of CSR as a duty to society and to pertinent stakeholders [ 42 , 43 ], an ethical responsibility and management process [ 44 ], and interprets CSR as attempts made by corporations to improve the social environment on a voluntary basis [ 45 ].

However, a portion of the existing literature, most notably [ 46 ], narrows down the concept of CSR and argues that CSR can be understood as corporate profit maximization under legal and ethical obligations and providing maximal value to the stakeholders. Some researches, including [ 47 ], define CSR in a much broader context and assert that socially responsible business practice involves enlarging social benefits not limited to corporate profit nor that required by law.

Prior studies document that many charitable donations are driven by the goal of corporate profit maximization and by managerial self-interest [ 48 , 49 ]. From the agency problem perspective, they add that a manager is innately predisposed to allocate corporate resources beyond the optimal level on CSR-related projects in order to obtain private benefits, such as personal reputation, possibly resulting in a drop in firm value, due to the heightened agency conflict between stockholders and managers [ 51 ]. Furthermore, the available empirical evidence remains relatively inconclusive. Some studies establish a negative association between the two, based on the findings that firms with high levels of corporate expenditure on social and environmental issues relinquish their strategic advantages to competitors and thus become more susceptible to financial losses [ 55 , 56 ] and financial distress [ 57 ].

More specifically, companies that adopt more socially responsible business practices enjoy better corporate outcomes [ 60 ], better financing capabilities such as profits, leverage ratio, and debt-repayment capability [ 61 ], lower transaction costs and reduced probability of conflicts with stakeholders [ 62 ], better financial accomplishments [ 63 , 64 ], higher short-term abnormal returns [ 65 ], and an improved brand image that leads to increased strategic competitiveness and firm value [ 66 , 67 , 68 ].

Likewise, researches on the Korean market generally report a positive link between CSR and firm value.

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As such, the conventional wisdom on CSR and firm value seems to establish a positive link between the two [ 74 , 75 ]. Studies on the effects of CSR activities on financial performance can be divided into those that argue that the correlation is positive and those that argue the opposite. The former research stream concludes that additional revenue earned by firms from CSR exceeds the costs incurred. However, the latter argues that the costs incurred to conduct CSR activities exceed the profits from them, thus resulting in a decrease in profits [ 76 ].